{ "objects" : [ { "embark_ID" : 211, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/211", "Disp_Access_No" : "1951.1", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1928", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1928", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1928", "Disp_Title" : "Boomtown", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "Thomas Hart Benton", "Sort_Artist" : "Benton, Thomas Hart", "Disp_Dimen" : "46 1/8 x 54 1/4 in. (117.2 x 137.8 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "46 1/8 in.", "Disp_Width" : "54 1/4 in.", "Dimen_Extent" : "without frame", "Medium" : "Egg yolk and oil", "Support" : "canvas", "Disp_Medium" : "Egg yolk and oil on canvas", "Info_Page_Comm" : "Early in his career, Thomas Hart Benton was involved in the American abstract movement, Synchromism. In the 1920s, Benton embarked on a style that incorporated Synchromist rhythmic line and expressive color with representational imagery of rural America. With this major shift in style, Benton established the Regionalist movement. Many consider Boomtown to be the artist’s first Regionalist masterpiece. [Gallery label text, 2007] Boomtown is one of the masterpieces of the Gallery's collection because of its impressive and unique depiction of an American landscape. When Thomas Hart Benton sketched this panoramic scene from a second floor window, the smoky fire on the horizon signified progress, not pollution. Borger, Texas was a boomtown that sprang to life in 1926 after a refinery company hit a gusher that produced 5000 gallons of oil a day. Benton is one of the three major American Regionalists (the other two are Grant Wood and John Steuart Curry), so called because most of their subjects were about life in the rural heartland of America. While Benton was not a fan of contemporary modernist painting, and in fact disdained artists who painted in the abstract style, he couldn't help but be influenced by the curvy and streamlined aesthetic of his times and the way in which artists were reinterpreting three-dimensional space. Consider the way in which the people, buildings and landscape are layered from top to bottom on the canvas, rather than being laid out carefully from front to back in the manner of traditional artistic renderings. 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(195.3 x 97.5 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "76 7/8 in.", "Disp_Width" : "38 3/8 in.", "Dimen_Extent" : "without frame", "Medium" : "Oil", "Support" : "canvas", "Disp_Medium" : "Oil on canvas", "Info_Page_Comm" : "Kathleen McEnery’s early training as an Urban Realist drew her to depict reality with an uncompromising eye. The artist was about twenty-two years old and living in Paris when she painted this bold and modern woman. McEnery lived in New York, Madrid, and Paris before she moved to Rochester, NY in 1914. [Gallery label text, 2007] Kathleen McEnery was about twenty-two years old and living in Paris when she painted Woman in an Ermine Collar. She lived and trained in New York, Madrid, and Paris before moving to Rochester in 1914. McEnery played a major role in Rochester’s cultural circles, and painted throughout her life while raising a family with her husband, Francis Cunningham of the Cunningham Car Company. McEnery’s training with the American realist master Robert Henri drew her to depict with honesty the conditions of modern life. The result is this woman’s unapologetic presence. She is an embodiment of the New Woman – a cultural phenomenon of the growing women’s rights movement, of which the artist was an ardent supporter. The New Woman rebelled against traditional gender roles and was independent, confident, and physically active. As this woman’s dashing manner illustrates, she was equally as comfortable in the public domain as would be any man. [Gallery label text, 2006] In New York City, Kathleen McEnery studied with Robert Henri. She also studied abroad and exhibited two paintings at the controversial 1913 Armory Show in New York City. After her marriage to Rochesterian Francis Cunningham, whose family owned the Cunningham Carriage Factory, she continued painting in a studio off the family's home on 10 South Goodman St., now on the campus of the Rochester Museum and Science Center. As Mrs. Cunningham, she was a member of the Gallery's Board of Managers from 1927 through 1971. The model's direct and intelligent expression and forthright pose suggests the "new woman," ready to be a participant in contemporary society rather than remain at home. Certainly, McEnery herself, who had graduated from Pratt Institute and lived on her own in New York City, fit that description as well. [Gallery label text, 2003]", "Dedication" : "Gift of Joan Cunningham Williams, Peter Cunningham, and Michael McEnery Cunningham", "Copyright_Type" : "Public Domain", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Painting", "Creation_Place2" : "American", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/83.13_A1.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/83.13_A1.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/83.13_A1.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/83.13_A1.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "12491", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "Print master derived 11/23/09 by Lu Harper for Seeing America lesson plans. Needs to be okayed by Curatorial for any other use.", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 4211, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/4211", "Disp_Access_No" : "2005.31", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1927", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1927", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1927", "Disp_Title" : "Negro Head", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "John Steuart Curry", "Sort_Artist" : "Curry, John Steuart", "Disp_Dimen" : "24 x 18 1/2 in. (61 x 47 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "24 in.", "Disp_Width" : "18 1/2 in.", "Dimen_Extent" : "", "Medium" : "Oil", "Support" : "canvas", "Disp_Medium" : "Oil on canvas", "Info_Page_Comm" : "According to the [previous owner], Curry met the subject of this painting, a sugar cane worker, on a trip to Cuba. [Gallery label text]", "Dedication" : "Marion Stratton Gould Fund", "Copyright_Type" : "Under Copyright", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Painting", "Creation_Place2" : "American", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/2005.31_A2.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/2005.31_A2.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/2005.31_A2.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/2005.31_A2.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "33982", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "See other views on disk: MAG 100622", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 418, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/418", "Disp_Access_No" : "1951.5", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1942", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1942", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1942", "Disp_Title" : "The Opposition", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "William Gropper", "Sort_Artist" : "Gropper, William", "Disp_Dimen" : "28 x 38 in. (71.1 x 96.5 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "28 in.", "Disp_Width" : "38 in.", "Dimen_Extent" : "without frame", "Medium" : "Oil", "Support" : "canvas", "Disp_Medium" : "Oil on canvas", "Info_Page_Comm" : "Lawmakers were threatening to cut significant federal funding for the arts when political cartoonist and painter William Gropper satirized the United States Senate in The Opposition. Gropper wrote, “I have portrayed the type of representative that is opposed to progress and culture. The U.S. Senate…[has] such an influence on American life, good and bad, that it has even affected the artist and the cultural development of our country.” [Gallery label text, 2007] William Gropper was best known for his caustic commentary on the American political and social scene. He depicted realistic and identifiable subjects; The Opposition was one of a number of paintings and illustrations that came out of his 1934 assignment for the magazine Vanity Fair, to sketch legislators in action in Washington. Gropper made no bones about his distaste for politics and used his art to further his point of view: "I have portrayed the type of representative that is opposed to progress and culture. The U.S. Senate and the House of Representatives have had such an influence on American life, good and bad, that it has even affected the artist and the cultural development of our country. No matter how far removed from politics artists may be, it seems to strike home. Only recently one blasting speech of a reactionary representative resulted in not only doing away with the Section of Fine Art, but also dismissing the Graphic Division of the OWI [Office of War Information] and nullifying art reportage for the War Department." Gropper's start as a newspaper illustrator informed the creative processes of the rest of his life. His work retained his journalist's interest in issues of the day, giving it a particularly topical essence presented in a dynamic, expressionistic format. [Gallery label text, 2006]", "Dedication" : "Marion Stratton Gould Fund", "Copyright_Type" : "Under Copyright", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Painting", "Creation_Place2" : "American", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Related_Children" : [ { "Rel_Obj_ID" : "1714", "Rel_Obj_Title" : "The Opposition" } ], "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/51.5_A1.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/51.5_A1.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/51.5_A1.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/51.5_A1.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "12387", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 419, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/419", "Disp_Access_No" : "1951.6", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1943", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1943", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1943", "Disp_Title" : "The Wanderer", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "George Grosz", "Sort_Artist" : "Grosz, George", "Disp_Dimen" : "30 x 40 in. (76.2 x 101.6 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "30 in.", "Disp_Width" : "40 in.", "Dimen_Extent" : "", "Medium" : "Oil", "Support" : "canvas", "Disp_Medium" : "Oil on canvas", "Info_Page_Comm" : "Ten years after fleeing Germany during Hitler’s rise to power, George Grosz painted The Wanderer in New York. As World War II raged over the ocean, Grosz created this intensely personal response to his experience as a German soldier in World War I and his 1933 emigration to the United States. [Gallery label text, 2007] Painted in the midst of World War II, The Wanderer is an expression of the artist’s recent life experience. George Grosz was an established painter in Germany who, like many others, spoke out against the totalitarian Nazi regime. For his own safety and that of his family, he relocated to the United States. The Wanderer was one of a group of so-called ‘hell pictures’; in a letter, he wrote: I work a lot…I painted a little picture – The Wanderer – myself of course…The resonance of explosion and destruction often shakes me bodily. The explosion and destruction was a reference to the war-torn European continent that he had left behind, as well as a reference to his own emotional volatility as he tried to adjust, with little success, to his new life in America, suggested in the painting by the seagrasses he knew from Long Island and Cape Cod beaches. The Wanderer was probably one of the newest paintings acquired for the Encyclopedia Britannica Collection, as the collection was formed in 1943, the same year that Grosz painted this work. Stylistically, the painting’s expression of personal and cultural angst – achieved through desolate subject matter, somber palette, and unquiet line – was very much an alternative view to the more upbeat images of wartime artists like Norman Rockwell. [Gallery label text, 2006]", "Dedication" : "Marion Stratton Gould Fund", "Copyright_Type" : "Under Copyright", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Painting", "Creation_Place2" : "American", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/51.6_A1.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/51.6_A1.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/51.6_A1.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/51.6_A1.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "12388", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 522, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/522", "Disp_Access_No" : "1991.5", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1948", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1948", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1948", "Disp_Title" : "Summer Street Scene in Harlem", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "Jacob Lawrence", "Sort_Artist" : "Lawrence, Jacob", "Disp_Dimen" : "20 1/16 x 24 1/8 in. (51 x 61.2 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "20 1/16 in.", "Disp_Width" : "24 1/8 in.", "Dimen_Extent" : "without frame", "Medium" : "Tempera", "Support" : "panel", "Disp_Medium" : "Tempera on gesso panel", "Info_Page_Comm" : "Jacob Lawrence chronicled the migration of African Americans from the South to the North in the first half of the 20th century. In Summer Street Scene in Harlem, Lawrence’s style incorporates the flattened surfaces, distorted shapes, and bold colors of modernism to capture the energy and vitality of life in Harlem, New York. [Gallery label text, 2007]", "Dedication" : "Marion Stratton Gould Fund", "Copyright_Type" : "Under Copyright", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Painting", "Creation_Place2" : "American", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/91.5_A1.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/91.5_A1.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/91.5_A1.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/91.5_A1.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "12514", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "Print Master derived from Digital Master for Seeing America Pachyderm project August 2008. Needs curatorial approval for other uses.", "View" : "" } , ] }, ] }