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(50.8 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "20 in.", "Disp_Width" : "", "Dimen_Extent" : "maximum", "Medium" : "Plaster", "Support" : "", "Disp_Medium" : "Plaster and paint", "Info_Page_Comm" : "Plaster sketch for the bronze portrait statue at the School of Journalism, Columbia University, New York.", "Dedication" : "Gift of Lily Lawlor", "Copyright_Type" : "Public Domain", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Sculpture", "Creation_Place2" : "American", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/23.8_A2.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/23.8_A2.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/23.8_A2.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/23.8_A2.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "36599", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 1040, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/1040", "Disp_Access_No" : "1930.73", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1837", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1837", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1837", "Disp_Title" : "Francis Granger (1792 - 1868)", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "Hiram Powers", "Sort_Artist" : "Powers, Hiram", "Disp_Dimen" : "23 x 17 x 11 in. 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Here’s one theory: originally, many ancient Greek and Roman sculptures were painted, including the eyes, but over the years the paint has faded so that by the 19th century, the eyes appeared to be blank. While 19th century artists often modeled their portrait busts of important political figures on these Classical forms, they did not know that the eyes had been painted originally, so they left them blank. Only with current technology has it been possible to understand how the older sculptures actually appeared. The subject of this sculpture, Francis Granger (1792 – 1868), was born a decade after the American Revolution and died right after the Civil War. A congressman from nearby Canandaigua when he posed for this sculpture in 1837, he said: “Now then for a small piece of vanity – Powers, the sculptor, is taking me in clay, to be wrought in marble in Italy next summer. If he does not get a perfect head, it will be his first failure.” [Gallery label text, 2009]", "Dedication" : "Bequest of Antoinette Pierson Granger", "Copyright_Type" : "Public Domain", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Sculpture", "Creation_Place2" : "American", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "Standing on its own cylindrical marble pedestal approximately 43" h - overall: 66" h (information taken from log book and catalog card)", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/30.73_A1.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/30.73_A1.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/30.73_A1.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/30.73_A1.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "17113", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 10364, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/10364", "Disp_Access_No" : "1981.50.8", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1970", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1970", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1970", "Disp_Title" : "Surface Series #44", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "Robert Rauschenberg", "Sort_Artist" : "Rauschenberg, Robert", "Disp_Dimen" : "40 x 40 in. 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(101.6 x 101.6 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "40 in.", "Disp_Width" : "40 in.", "Dimen_Extent" : "sheet", "Medium" : "Printer''s ink", "Support" : "paper", "Disp_Medium" : "Color serigraph", "Info_Page_Comm" : "", "Dedication" : "Gift of Joan and Martin Messinger", "Copyright_Type" : "Under Copyright", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Print", "Creation_Place2" : "American", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/81.50.11_A1.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/81.50.11_A1.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/81.50.11_A1.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/81.50.11_A1.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "12789", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 10368, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/10368", "Disp_Access_No" : "1981.50.13", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1970", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1970", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1970", "Disp_Title" : "Surface Series #49", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "Robert Rauschenberg", "Sort_Artist" : "Rauschenberg, Robert", "Disp_Dimen" : "40 x 40 in. (101.6 x 101.6 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "40 in.", "Disp_Width" : "40 in.", "Dimen_Extent" : "sheet", "Medium" : "Printer''s ink", "Support" : "paper", "Disp_Medium" : "Color serigraph", "Info_Page_Comm" : "", "Dedication" : "Gift of Joan and Martin Messinger", "Copyright_Type" : "Under Copyright", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Print", "Creation_Place2" : "American", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/81.50.13_A1.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/81.50.13_A1.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/81.50.13_A1.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/81.50.13_A1.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "12790", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 10372, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/10372", "Disp_Access_No" : "1981.50.17", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1970", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1970", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1970", "Disp_Title" : "Surface Series #53", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "Robert Rauschenberg", "Sort_Artist" : "Rauschenberg, Robert", "Disp_Dimen" : "40 x 40 in. (101.6 x 101.6 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "40 in.", "Disp_Width" : "40 in.", "Dimen_Extent" : "sheet", "Medium" : "Printer''s ink", "Support" : "paper", "Disp_Medium" : "Color serigraph", "Info_Page_Comm" : "", "Dedication" : "Gift of Joan and Martin Messinger", "Copyright_Type" : "Under Copyright", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Print", "Creation_Place2" : "American", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/81.50.17_A1.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/81.50.17_A1.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/81.50.17_A1.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/81.50.17_A1.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "12795", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 4011, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/4011", "Disp_Access_No" : "1998.213", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "circa 1968", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1963", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1973", "Disp_Title" : "Mayor Daley", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "Larry Rivers", "Sort_Artist" : "Rivers, Larry", "Disp_Dimen" : "30 x 40 in. (76.2 x 101.6 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "30 in.", "Disp_Width" : "40 in.", "Dimen_Extent" : "without frame", "Medium" : "Graphite", "Support" : "board", "Disp_Medium" : "Graphite, paper and textile on board ", "Info_Page_Comm" : "", "Dedication" : "Gift of Dr. and Mrs. Richard T. Stern", "Copyright_Type" : "Under Copyright", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Drawing", "Creation_Place2" : "American", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/98.213_A1.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/98.213_A1.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/98.213_A1.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/98.213_A1.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "19163", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 1465, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/1465", "Disp_Access_No" : "1985.66", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1868", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1868", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1868", "Disp_Title" : "General Grant and His Family (after William Cogswell)", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "John Sartain", "Sort_Artist" : "Sartain, John", "Disp_Dimen" : "28 1/4 x 21 7/8 in. (71.8 x 55.6 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "28 1/4 in.", "Disp_Width" : "21 7/8 in.", "Dimen_Extent" : "", "Medium" : "Printer''s ink", "Support" : "paper", "Disp_Medium" : "Engraving", "Info_Page_Comm" : "", "Dedication" : "Gift of Irene Adams Sillay", "Copyright_Type" : "Public Domain", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Print", "Creation_Place2" : "American", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/85.66_A1.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/85.66_A1.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/85.66_A1.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/85.66_A1.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "19159", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 2325, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/2325", "Disp_Access_No" : "1991.73", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1854", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1854", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1854", "Disp_Title" : "The County Election (after George Caleb Bingham)", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "John Sartain", "Sort_Artist" : "Sartain, John", "Disp_Dimen" : "25 5/8 x 32 3/16 in. (65.1 x 81.8 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "25 5/8 in.", "Disp_Width" : "32 3/16 in.", "Dimen_Extent" : "", "Medium" : "Printer''s ink", "Support" : "paper", "Disp_Medium" : "Hand-colored line, stipple and mezzotint engraving", "Info_Page_Comm" : "This scene is a commentary on American elections as well as on a specific Election Day in 1850. On that day, in Saline County, Missouri, the artist George Caleb Bingham ran for a place in the State Legislature. E. D. Sappington, the candidate lifting his shiny top hat, was the winner. Sappington, with his workers, tried to buy votes with liquor, and because he was related to the judge and one of the clerks, the election’s outcome aroused suspicion. While Bingham did not contest the results, The County Election makes a powerful statement about his thoughts concerning the corrupt proceedings. The artist represents himself as the figure in the stovepipe hat seated on the courthouse steps, attended by a friendly dog and two men in white hats who pause to look over his shoulder. John Sartain was a highly successful engraver and publisher. He is well-known for his mezzotints of paintings by some of America’s major artists, including Emanuel Leutze and Thomas Sully. His descendants continued to make important contributions to the world of 19th century American art. [Gallery label text, October 2010]", "Dedication" : "Marion Stratton Gould Fund", "Copyright_Type" : "Public Domain", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Print", "Creation_Place2" : "American", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/91.73_A1.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/91.73_A1.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/91.73_A1.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/91.73_A1.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "18944", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 2410, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/2410", "Disp_Access_No" : "1998.34", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "0", "_Disp_End_Date" : "0", "Disp_Title" : "Politricks", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "Harry Sternberg", "Sort_Artist" : "Sternberg, Harry", "Disp_Dimen" : "34 3/4 x 25 in. (88.3 x 63.5 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "34 3/4 in.", "Disp_Width" : "25 in.", "Dimen_Extent" : "sheet", "Medium" : "Printer''s ink", "Support" : "Japanese paper", "Disp_Medium" : "Color woodcut", "Info_Page_Comm" : "", "Dedication" : "Gift of Grant Holcomb in memory of Alan Underberg", "Copyright_Type" : "Under Copyright", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Print", "Creation_Place2" : "American", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/98.34_A1.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/98.34_A1.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/98.34_A1.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/98.34_A1.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "19160", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 2455, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/2455", "Disp_Access_No" : "1965.7", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1964", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1964", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1964", "Disp_Title" : "Jackie", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "Andy Warhol", "Sort_Artist" : "Warhol, Andy", "Disp_Dimen" : "23 7/8 x 23 1/4 in. (60.6 x 59.1 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "23 7/8 in.", "Disp_Width" : "23 1/4 in.", "Dimen_Extent" : "", "Medium" : "Acrylic", "Support" : "canvas", "Disp_Medium" : "Acrylic and silkscreen ink on canvas", "Info_Page_Comm" : "Warhol often used an unorthodox approach to portraiture. He borrowed from media photographs of celebrities to construct an individual’s public image instead of using a brush to render an idiosyncratic artistic interpretation of a sitter’s appearance. This work is part of Warhol’s “Jackie” series, which he began shortly after the assassination of President John F. Kennedy in 1963. As the basis for the paintings, he first selected eight photographs from the mass-media coverage of the event. He then cropped the pictures to focus on the President’s widow, Jacqueline Kennedy. Warhol used a commercial silkscreen technique to produce multiple versions of his work. As Warhol described, I wanted something that gave more of an assembly line effect….With silkscreening you pick a photograph, blow it up, transfer it in glue onto silk, and then roll ink across it so the ink goes through the silk but not through the glue. That way you get the same image, slightly different each time. It was all so simple quick and chancy. [Forman Gallery, Summer 2015]", "Dedication" : "Marion Stratton Gould Fund", "Copyright_Type" : "Under Copyright", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Print", "Creation_Place2" : "American", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/65.7_A1.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/65.7_A1.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/65.7_A1.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/65.7_A1.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "12431", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 2459, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/2459", "Disp_Access_No" : "1976.132", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1966", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1966", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1966", "Disp_Title" : "Jacqueline Kennedy III", "Alt_Title" : "Jacqueline Kennedy III", "Obj_Title" : "", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "Andy Warhol", "Sort_Artist" : "Warhol, Andy", "Disp_Dimen" : "40 x 30 in. (101.6 x 76.2 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "40 in.", "Disp_Width" : "30 in.", "Dimen_Extent" : "", "Medium" : "Printer''s ink", "Support" : "canvas", "Disp_Medium" : "Serigraph on canvas", "Info_Page_Comm" : "The images that Andy Warhol used of Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy were based on photographs by Fred War in "Life" magazine, December 6, 1963. [Gallery label text] From the portfolio "Eleven Pop Artists, Volume III" Pop Art print rotation, Post-1950 American art gallery, Jessica Marten, Assistant Curator, Oct. 3, 2011 - March 5, 2012: President John F. Kennedy was the first “television president;” he and his wife and children were regulars on our TVs, as if they were our royal family. After the President’s assassination, Warhol treated images of Jacqueline Kennedy as a popular culture commodity much like his ubiquitous Campbell Soup can. Warhol used a commercial silkscreen technique to produce his art. “I wanted something that gave more of an assembly line effect… With silkscreening you pick a photograph, blow it up, transfer it in glue onto silk, and then roll ink across it so the ink goes through the silk but not through the glue. That way you get the same image, slightly different each time. It was all so simple quick and chancy.” ", "Dedication" : "Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Daniel G. Schuman", "Copyright_Type" : "Under Copyright", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Print", "Creation_Place2" : "American", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "Text in Box #280.", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/76.132_A2.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/76.132_A2.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/76.132_A2.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/76.132_A2.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "27606", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "On disk dated 1-16-05", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 418, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/418", "Disp_Access_No" : "1951.5", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1942", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1942", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1942", "Disp_Title" : "The Opposition", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "William Gropper", "Sort_Artist" : "Gropper, William", "Disp_Dimen" : "28 x 38 in. (71.1 x 96.5 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "28 in.", "Disp_Width" : "38 in.", "Dimen_Extent" : "without frame", "Medium" : "Oil", "Support" : "canvas", "Disp_Medium" : "Oil on canvas", "Info_Page_Comm" : "Lawmakers were threatening to cut significant federal funding for the arts when political cartoonist and painter William Gropper satirized the United States Senate in The Opposition. Gropper wrote, “I have portrayed the type of representative that is opposed to progress and culture. The U.S. Senate…[has] such an influence on American life, good and bad, that it has even affected the artist and the cultural development of our country.” [Gallery label text, 2007] William Gropper was best known for his caustic commentary on the American political and social scene. He depicted realistic and identifiable subjects; The Opposition was one of a number of paintings and illustrations that came out of his 1934 assignment for the magazine Vanity Fair, to sketch legislators in action in Washington. Gropper made no bones about his distaste for politics and used his art to further his point of view: "I have portrayed the type of representative that is opposed to progress and culture. The U.S. Senate and the House of Representatives have had such an influence on American life, good and bad, that it has even affected the artist and the cultural development of our country. No matter how far removed from politics artists may be, it seems to strike home. Only recently one blasting speech of a reactionary representative resulted in not only doing away with the Section of Fine Art, but also dismissing the Graphic Division of the OWI [Office of War Information] and nullifying art reportage for the War Department." Gropper's start as a newspaper illustrator informed the creative processes of the rest of his life. His work retained his journalist's interest in issues of the day, giving it a particularly topical essence presented in a dynamic, expressionistic format. [Gallery label text, 2006]", "Dedication" : "Marion Stratton Gould Fund", "Copyright_Type" : "Under Copyright", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Painting", "Creation_Place2" : "American", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Related_Children" : [ { "Rel_Obj_ID" : "1714", "Rel_Obj_Title" : "The Opposition" } ], "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/51.5_A1.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/51.5_A1.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/51.5_A1.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/51.5_A1.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "12387", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 222, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/222", "Disp_Access_No" : "1941.24", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "ca. 1862-1863", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1862", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1863", "Disp_Title" : "Trial Scene ", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "David Gilmour Blythe", "Sort_Artist" : "Blythe, David Gilmour", "Disp_Dimen" : "22 1/4 x 27 in. (56.5 x 68.6 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "22 1/4 in.", "Disp_Width" : "27 in.", "Dimen_Extent" : "without frame", "Medium" : "Oil", "Support" : "canvas", "Disp_Medium" : "Oil on canvas", "Info_Page_Comm" : "Blythe’s painting shows a scene of frontier justice in a rough building serving as a courtroom. A backwoods “lawyer” at the center either defends or makes his case against a shackled prisoner at the right. However, some elements of the scene, including the onlookers—some armed with long guns, some distracted by a card game—and the pot and sack at the lower left labelled “tar” and “feathers,” reveal that this is an extrajudicial proceeding. The prisoner whittles unconcernedly while his fate is decided, suggesting that this is a typically satirical genre scene for Blythe, who made other paintings of farcical trials and caricatured politics. [Gallery label text, 2019]", "Dedication" : "Marion Stratton Gould Fund", "Copyright_Type" : "Public Domain", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Painting", "Creation_Place2" : "American", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "Originally purchased through R. T. Miller fund-- later shifted to Marion Stratton Gould fund. The reason could not be determined.", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/41.24_A1.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/41.24_A1.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/41.24_A1.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/41.24_A1.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "12354", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "Print master derived 11/23/09 by Lu Harper for Seeing America lesson plans. Needs to be okayed by Curatorial before any other use.", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 5162, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/5162", "Disp_Access_No" : "1954.1", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "ca. 1900", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1895", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1905", "Disp_Title" : "At Court (Au Tribunal)", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "Jean Louis Forain", "Sort_Artist" : "Forain, Jean Louis", "Disp_Dimen" : "22 x 27 5/8 in. (55.9 x 70.2 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "22 in.", "Disp_Width" : "27 5/8 in.", "Dimen_Extent" : "", "Medium" : "Oil", "Support" : "canvas", "Disp_Medium" : "Oil on canvas", "Info_Page_Comm" : "", "Dedication" : "Purchase and Sales Fund", "Copyright_Type" : "Public Domain", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Painting", "Creation_Place2" : "French", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/54.1_A1.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/54.1_A1.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/54.1_A1.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/54.1_A1.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "14493", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 1863, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/1863", "Disp_Access_No" : "1986.45", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1869", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1869", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1869", "Disp_Title" : "Jurors Listening to Counsel, Supreme Court, New City Hall, New York", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "Winslow Homer", "Sort_Artist" : "Homer, Winslow", "Disp_Dimen" : "9 x 13 3/4 in. (22.9 x 34.9 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "9 in.", "Disp_Width" : "13 3/4 in.", "Dimen_Extent" : "image", "Medium" : "Printer''s ink", "Support" : "paper", "Disp_Medium" : "Wood engraving", "Info_Page_Comm" : "Published in "Harper's Weekly," February 20, 1869", "Dedication" : "Gift of Howard and Florence Merritt", "Copyright_Type" : "Public Domain", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Print", "Creation_Place2" : "American", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/86.45_A1.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/86.45_A1.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/86.45_A1.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/86.45_A1.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "13256", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/86.45_A2.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/86.45_A2.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/86.45_A2.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/86.45_A2.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "46179", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 707, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/707", "Disp_Access_No" : "1941.33", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1907", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1907", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1907", "Disp_Title" : "Election Night", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "John Sloan", "Sort_Artist" : "Sloan, John", "Disp_Dimen" : "26 3/8 x 32 1/4 in. (67 x 81.9 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "26 3/8 in.", "Disp_Width" : "32 1/4 in.", "Dimen_Extent" : "", "Medium" : "Oil", "Support" : "canvas", "Disp_Medium" : "Oil on canvas", "Info_Page_Comm" : "This scene, nearly unintelligible in its crowding and confusion, is Sloan’s celebration of the furor of the city on election night. [Gallery label text, 2007] John Sloan met Robert Henri in Philadelphia, and from early on maintained a friendship and correspondence with him until Henri died in 1929. He moved to New York City at Henri’s urging. On November 5, 1907, he wrote: “Election Day… saw the noisy trumpet blowers, confetti throwers and the 'ticklers' in use - a small feather duster on a stick which is pushed in the face of each girl by the men, and in the face of men by the girls. A good humorous crowd, so dense in places that it was impossible to control one's movement.” The location, Herald Square at 34th and Broadway, was close by the New York Herald Building as well as Macy's. The elevated railroad tracks loomed overhead, increasing the suggestion of noise and activity in the scene. Sloan included Election Night as one of his entries in the 1908 exhibition at Macbeth Gallery. In his estimation, it was “…one of my best things. So that I felt happy in the evening, that good all over feeling that only comes from satisfaction in work - the real happiness, the joy of accomplishing or thinking that one has accomplished, which amounts to the same thing.” [Gallery label text, 2003]", "Dedication" : "Marion Stratton Gould Fund", "Copyright_Type" : "Public Domain", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Painting", "Creation_Place2" : "American", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/41.33_A1.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/41.33_A1.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/41.33_A1.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/41.33_A1.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "12359", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "Print Master derived from Digital Master for Seeing America Pachyderm project August 2008.", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 2458, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/2458", "Disp_Access_No" : "1975.335.10", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1964", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1964", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1964", "Disp_Title" : "Birmingham Race Riot", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "Andy Warhol", "Sort_Artist" : "Warhol, Andy", "Disp_Dimen" : "19 15/16 x 24 in. (50.7 x 61 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "19 15/16 in.", "Disp_Width" : "24 in.", "Dimen_Extent" : "sheet/image", "Medium" : "Printer''s ink", "Support" : "paper", "Disp_Medium" : "Serigraph on paper", "Info_Page_Comm" : "Andy Warhol frequently appropriated images by other artists for his work. In this case, the image was originally a photograph by Charles Moore in "Life" magazine, May 17, 1963. [Gallery label text 2013] This image first appeared in Andy Warhol’s Disasters series, in which the artist selected, cropped, altered, and reproduced mass-circulated news photographs. The series commented upon America’s social ills with photos of suicides, car crashes and nuclear explosions. Birmingham Race Riot captures the racial tensions that gripped the country during the Civil Rights Movement. Warhol was an eager consumer of newspapers and magazines; he likely saw this photo of the Birmingham riot when it was published in LIFE magazine on May 17, 1963, only five days after the event it immortalized. The original photograph was taken by Charles Moore. ", "Dedication" : "The Charles Rand Penney Collection of the Memorial Art Gallery", "Copyright_Type" : "Under Copyright", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Print", "Creation_Place2" : "American", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/75.335.10_A2.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/75.335.10_A2.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/75.335.10_A2.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/75.335.10_A2.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "43451", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 1386, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/1386", "Disp_Access_No" : "1975.120.2", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "0", "_Disp_End_Date" : "0", "Disp_Title" : "Union Mixer", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "Colleen Browning", "Sort_Artist" : "Browning, Colleen", "Disp_Dimen" : "23 x 35 in. (58.4 x 88.9 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "23 in.", "Disp_Width" : "35 in.", "Dimen_Extent" : "sheet", "Medium" : "Printer''s ink", "Support" : "paper", "Disp_Medium" : "Color lithograph", "Info_Page_Comm" : "", "Dedication" : "Gift of Lorillard, New York", "Copyright_Type" : "Under Copyright", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Print", "Creation_Place2" : "American", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/75.120.2_A1.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/75.120.2_A1.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/75.120.2_A1.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/75.120.2_A1.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "0", "_SurrogateID" : "13522", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/75.120.2_A2.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/75.120.2_A2.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/75.120.2_A2.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/75.120.2_A2.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "54142", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 1698, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/1698", "Disp_Access_No" : "1975.120.4", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1975", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1975", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1975", "Disp_Title" : "Bicentennial Bandwagon", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "Red Grooms", "Sort_Artist" : "Grooms, Red", "Disp_Dimen" : "26 5/8 x 34 3/4 in. (67.6 x 88.3 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "26 5/8 in.", "Disp_Width" : "34 3/4 in.", "Dimen_Extent" : "sheet/image", "Medium" : "Printer''s ink", "Support" : "paper", "Disp_Medium" : "Color serigraph", "Info_Page_Comm" : "", "Dedication" : "Gift of Lorillard, New York", "Copyright_Type" : "Under Copyright", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Print", "Creation_Place2" : "American", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/75.120.4_A1.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/75.120.4_A1.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/75.120.4_A1.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/75.120.4_A1.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "12853", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 11787, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/11787", "Disp_Access_No" : "2001.20.1", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1932", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1932", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1932", "Disp_Title" : "The Anti-Religious Alphabet ", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "The letter &#1040; from The Anti-Religious Alphabet", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "Mikhail Mikhailovich Cheremnykh", "Sort_Artist" : "Cheremnykh, Mikhail Mikhailovich", "Disp_Dimen" : "14 7/8 x 10 5/8 in. (37.8 x 27 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "14 7/8 in.", "Disp_Width" : "10 5/8 in.", "Dimen_Extent" : "sheet/image", "Medium" : "Printer''s ink", "Support" : "2ply board", "Disp_Medium" : "Color lithograph", "Info_Page_Comm" : "From a portfolio of 27 prints. This young and cheerful boy, dressed in a Soviet military costume and carrying a school blackboard, plays the protagonist of <em>The Anti-Religious Alphabet<em>. Although he only appears in five of the posters, he serves as both role model for and link between readers and the Soviet anti-religious campaign. ", "Dedication" : "Marion Stratton Gould Fund", "Copyright_Type" : "Public Domain", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Print", "Creation_Place2" : "Russian", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/2001.20.1_A2.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/2001.20.1_A2.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/2001.20.1_A2.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/2001.20.1_A2.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "27425", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 11788, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/11788", "Disp_Access_No" : "2001.20.2", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1932", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1932", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1932", "Disp_Title" : "Comrades, Clean out the Cult's Claptrap!", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "The letter &#1041 from The Anti-Religious Alphabet", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "Mikhail Mikhailovich Cheremnykh", "Sort_Artist" : "Cheremnykh, Mikhail Mikhailovich", "Disp_Dimen" : "14 7/8 x 10 5/8 in. (37.8 x 27 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "14 7/8 in.", "Disp_Width" : "10 5/8 in.", "Dimen_Extent" : "sheet/ image", "Medium" : "Printer''s ink", "Support" : "2ply board", "Disp_Medium" : "Color lithograph", "Info_Page_Comm" : "From a portfolio of 27 prints. The red color of the large silhouetted broom links it to the Soviet government, which, beginning in 1929, actively set out to close and destroy churches, bells and objects used in the practice of religion. Some religious objects, such as icons, crosses and bibles, were relocated in special anti-religious museums where they were displayed as artifacts of an ancient cult. Here, the broom sweeps the floor to remove an icon with an image of the Virgin Mary, a censer used in Orthodox religious rituals, a bible, and a chotki, or prayer rope used for saying repetitive private devotional prayers. ", "Dedication" : "Marion Stratton Gould Fund", "Copyright_Type" : "Public Domain", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Print", "Creation_Place2" : "Russian", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/2001.20.2_A2.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/2001.20.2_A2.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/2001.20.2_A2.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/2001.20.2_A2.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "27426", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 11789, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/11789", "Disp_Access_No" : "2001.20.3", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1932", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1932", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1932", "Disp_Title" : "Believing is Bad for you, Badder than Booze", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "The letter &#1042; from The Anti-Religious Alphabet", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "Mikhail Mikhailovich Cheremnykh", "Sort_Artist" : "Cheremnykh, Mikhail Mikhailovich", "Disp_Dimen" : "14 7/8 x 10 5/8 in. (37.8 x 27 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "14 7/8 in.", "Disp_Width" : "10 5/8 in.", "Dimen_Extent" : "sheet/ image", "Medium" : "Printer''s ink", "Support" : "2ply board", "Disp_Medium" : "Color lithograph", "Info_Page_Comm" : "From a portfolio of 27 prints. Recognized as a capitalist by his top hat and monocle, the sneering man at the top of the image sprays three figures with liquid from a pressurized canister-- perhaps one similar to those used to ferment alcohol-- labeled "religion." The three figures beneath are engaged in stereotypical self-destructive and frenetic, seemingly drunken, activities related to their religious beliefs. The colorful man at the left is probably a Mongolian who pierces himself with knives; the old peasant woman bangs her head on the ground while praying; and the <em>kulak</em>, or wealthy landowner, flagellates himself with a whip. [Gallery label text, 2004]", "Dedication" : "Marion Stratton Gould Fund", "Copyright_Type" : "Public Domain", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Print", "Creation_Place2" : "Russian", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/2001.20.3_A2.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/2001.20.3_A2.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/2001.20.3_A2.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/2001.20.3_A2.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "27427", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 11790, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/11790", "Disp_Access_No" : "2001.20.4", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1932", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1932", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1932", "Disp_Title" : "The Lord's Law Lauds the Lords", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "The letter &#1043; from The Anti-Religious Alphabet", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "Mikhail Mikhailovich Cheremnykh", "Sort_Artist" : "Cheremnykh, Mikhail Mikhailovich", "Disp_Dimen" : "14 7/8 x 10 5/8 in. (37.8 x 27 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "14 7/8 in.", "Disp_Width" : "10 5/8 in.", "Dimen_Extent" : "sheet/ image", "Medium" : "Printer''s ink", "Support" : "2ply board", "Disp_Medium" : "Color lithograph", "Info_Page_Comm" : "From a portfolio of 27 prints. The wealthy and fat capitalist, riding heavily on the back of a common man, points to a Bible opened to the words "Be patient." According to the anti-religious campaigners, the acceptance of Christian belief resulted in the enslavement of the masses, shown here by the whip that the capitalist wields. ", "Dedication" : "Marion Stratton Gould Fund", "Copyright_Type" : "Public Domain", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Print", "Creation_Place2" : "Russian", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/2001.20.4_A2.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/2001.20.4_A2.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/2001.20.4_A2.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/2001.20.4_A2.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "27428", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 11791, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/11791", "Disp_Access_No" : "2001.20.5", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1932", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1932", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1932", "Disp_Title" : "Prohibit Prehistoric Peasant Prejudices", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "The letter &#1044; from The Anti-Religious Alphabet", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "Mikhail Mikhailovich Cheremnykh", "Sort_Artist" : "Cheremnykh, Mikhail Mikhailovich", "Disp_Dimen" : "14 7/8 x 10 5/8 in. (37.8 x 27 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "14 7/8 in.", "Disp_Width" : "10 5/8 in.", "Dimen_Extent" : "sheet/ image", "Medium" : "Printer''s ink", "Support" : "2ply board", "Disp_Medium" : "Color lithograph", "Info_Page_Comm" : "From a portfolio of 27 prints. Along with the church, the <em>kulak</em>, or wealthy landowner, and the village priest were seen as key impediments to the Soviet anti-religious campaign. In this image, the giant silhouetted tractor, symbolic of the Soviet government by both its red color and the sign of the hammer and sickle, mows down a church as well as the <em>kulak</em> and the priest. The fields in the background, delineated by barbed wire, refer to the land owned by the <em>kulak</em>, who was the primary opponent to true agricultural collectivization. ", "Dedication" : "Marion Stratton Gould Fund", "Copyright_Type" : "Public Domain", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Print", "Creation_Place2" : "Russian", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/2001.20.5_A2.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/2001.20.5_A2.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/2001.20.5_A2.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/2001.20.5_A2.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "27429", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 11792, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/11792", "Disp_Access_No" : "2001.20.6", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1932", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1932", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1932", "Disp_Title" : "The Faithful Friars' Frequent Fasting ", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "The letter &#1045; from The Anti-Religious Alphabet", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "Mikhail Mikhailovich Cheremnykh", "Sort_Artist" : "Cheremnykh, Mikhail Mikhailovich", "Disp_Dimen" : "14 7/8 x 10 5/8 in. (37.8 x 27 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "14 7/8 in.", "Disp_Width" : "10 5/8 in.", "Dimen_Extent" : "sheet/ image", "Medium" : "Printer''s ink", "Support" : "2ply board", "Disp_Medium" : "Color lithograph", "Info_Page_Comm" : "From a portfolio of 27 prints. The fast, or sacrificial self-denial of food, is a traditional method of religious observance in most faiths. The irony in this image is clear: the priest who is in theory serving the faith and the faithful through sacrifice is in reality a glutton. ", "Dedication" : "Marion Stratton Gould Fund", "Copyright_Type" : "Public Domain", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Print", "Creation_Place2" : "Russian", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/2001.20.6_A2.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/2001.20.6_A2.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/2001.20.6_A2.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/2001.20.6_A2.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "27430", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 11793, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/11793", "Disp_Access_No" : "2001.20.7", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1932", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1932", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1932", "Disp_Title" : "The Saintly Spiders Sting the Stragglers", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "The letter &#1046; from The Anti-Religious Alphabet", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "Mikhail Mikhailovich Cheremnykh", "Sort_Artist" : "Cheremnykh, Mikhail Mikhailovich", "Disp_Dimen" : "14 7/8 x 10 5/8 in. (37.8 x 27 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "14 7/8 in.", "Disp_Width" : "10 5/8 in.", "Dimen_Extent" : "sheet/ image", "Medium" : "Printer''s ink", "Support" : "2ply board", "Disp_Medium" : "Color lithograph", "Info_Page_Comm" : "From a portfolio of 27 prints. The old peasant woman on pilgrimage, a sack on her back and carrying a walking stick, travels along a path that connects at the far right with an enormous spider's web. The spider, his head crowned with the black headdress of a high-level member of the Orthodox clergy, lays in wait. As bait, he dangles religious icons as she approaches the web. Icons like these were purchased by the religious faithful at various pilgrimage sites dedicated to saints and miracles of the Church. ", "Dedication" : "Marion Stratton Gould Fund", "Copyright_Type" : "Public Domain", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Print", "Creation_Place2" : "Russian", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/2001.20.7_A2.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/2001.20.7_A2.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/2001.20.7_A2.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/2001.20.7_A2.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "27431", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 11794, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/11794", "Disp_Access_No" : "2001.20.8", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1932", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1932", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1932", "Disp_Title" : "Substitute Science for the Sorcerer's Spells", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "The letter &#1047; from The Anti-Religious Alphabet", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "Mikhail Mikhailovich Cheremnykh", "Sort_Artist" : "Cheremnykh, Mikhail Mikhailovich", "Disp_Dimen" : "14 7/8 x 10 5/8 in. (37.8 x 27 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "14 7/8 in.", "Disp_Width" : "10 5/8 in.", "Dimen_Extent" : "sheet/ image", "Medium" : "Printer''s ink", "Support" : "2ply board", "Disp_Medium" : "Color lithograph", "Info_Page_Comm" : "From a portfolio of 27 prints. In many Russian rural communities, peasants consulted the village sorcerer as frequently as they consulted the village priest. The toothless and unkempt man on the left-- the sorcerer-- is shown with various tools of his trade: a rat, a bone, seeds, and a candle. A bottle labeled with the symbol of the Russian Orthodox cross is probably holy water, linking the magic of the sorcerer with the sorcery of the church. The scientific alternatives to magic, including the "new bible" <em>Political Education</em>, a microscope, and a draftsman's triangle are shown on the right. [Gallery label text, 2004]", "Dedication" : "Marion Stratton Gould Fund", "Copyright_Type" : "Public Domain", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Print", "Creation_Place2" : "Russian", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/2001.20.8_A2.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/2001.20.8_A2.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/2001.20.8_A2.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/2001.20.8_A2.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "27432", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 11795, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/11795", "Disp_Access_No" : "2001.20.9", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1932", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1932", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1932", "Disp_Title" : "The Jury's Judgment: Jeers for a Judas", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "The letter &#1048; from The Anti-Religious Alphabet", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "Mikhail Mikhailovich Cheremnykh", "Sort_Artist" : "Cheremnykh, Mikhail Mikhailovich", "Disp_Dimen" : "14 7/8 x 10 5/8 in. (37.8 x 27 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "14 7/8 in.", "Disp_Width" : "10 5/8 in.", "Dimen_Extent" : "sheet/ image", "Medium" : "Printer''s ink", "Support" : "2ply board", "Disp_Medium" : "Color lithograph", "Info_Page_Comm" : "From a portfolio of 27 prints. The religious faith and passive resistance movement of Mahatma Gandhi, the Hindu leader who was an activist for the rights of Indians under British colonial rule, was in direct opposition to the philosophy of the militant Soviet anti-religious campaign. On the left, Gandhi is shown with his hand outstretched, receiving money from the bejeweled hand of a capitalist; on the right, masses of Indians carrying the Soviet flag with its sign of the hammer and sickle raise their fists in anger. ", "Dedication" : "Marion Stratton Gould Fund", "Copyright_Type" : "Public Domain", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Print", "Creation_Place2" : "Russian", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/2001.20.9_A2.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/2001.20.9_A2.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/2001.20.9_A2.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/2001.20.9_A2.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "27443", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 11796, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/11796", "Disp_Access_No" : "2001.20.10", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1932", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1932", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1932", "Disp_Title" : "Blacksmith, Beat the Bells into Ballbearings", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "The letter &#1050; from The Anti-Religious Alphabet", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "Mikhail Mikhailovich Cheremnykh", "Sort_Artist" : "Cheremnykh, Mikhail Mikhailovich", "Disp_Dimen" : "14 7/8 x 10 5/8 in. (37.8 x 27 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "14 7/8 in.", "Disp_Width" : "10 5/8 in.", "Dimen_Extent" : "sheet/ image", "Medium" : "Printer''s ink", "Support" : "2ply board", "Disp_Medium" : "Color lithograph", "Info_Page_Comm" : "From a portfolio of 27 prints. On January 30, 1929, the Presidium, one organ of the Soviet government, banned the pealing of church bells, and within the next three years, hundreds of churches were demolished or closed and looted. Massive numbers of bells and icons were destroyed; the metal was used to support industrialization efforts. ", "Dedication" : "Marion Stratton Gould Fund", "Copyright_Type" : "Public Domain", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Print", "Creation_Place2" : "Russian", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/2001.20.10_A2.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/2001.20.10_A2.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/2001.20.10_A2.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/2001.20.10_A2.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "27444", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 11797, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/11797", "Disp_Access_No" : "2001.20.11", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1932", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1932", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1932", "Disp_Title" : "The Lurid Lava of Loathsome Lies ", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "The letter &#1051; from The Anti-Religious Alphabet", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "Mikhail Mikhailovich Cheremnykh", "Sort_Artist" : "Cheremnykh, Mikhail Mikhailovich", "Disp_Dimen" : "14 7/8 x 10 5/8 in. (37.8 x 27 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "14 7/8 in.", "Disp_Width" : "10 5/8 in.", "Dimen_Extent" : "sheet/ image", "Medium" : "Printer''s ink", "Support" : "2ply board", "Disp_Medium" : "Color lithograph", "Info_Page_Comm" : "From a portfolio of 27 prints. The Soviet anti-religious movement was directed at all religions, including Judaism, Islam, Western Catholicism, and Russian Orthodox Christianity. The headdresses of the four figures spewing liquid from their mouths indicate that they are leaders within their particular faith: from left to right are a rabbi, an Orthodox priest, a mullah, and the Pope. The protagonist of <em>The Anti-Religious Alphabet</em>, armed with his blackboard and umbrella, shows how the power of education can counter and protect against religious propaganda. ", "Dedication" : "Marion Stratton Gould Fund", "Copyright_Type" : "Public Domain", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Print", "Creation_Place2" : "Russian", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/2001.20.11_A2.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/2001.20.11_A2.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/2001.20.11_A2.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/2001.20.11_A2.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "27445", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 11798, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/11798", "Disp_Access_No" : "2001.20.12", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1932", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1932", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1932", "Disp_Title" : "The Mass's Martyrs Meet the Might of the Masses", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "The letter &#1052; from The Anti-Religious Alphabet", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "Mikhail Mikhailovich Cheremnykh", "Sort_Artist" : "Cheremnykh, Mikhail Mikhailovich", "Disp_Dimen" : "14 7/8 x 10 5/8 in. (37.8 x 27 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "14 7/8 in.", "Disp_Width" : "10 5/8 in.", "Dimen_Extent" : "sheet/ image", "Medium" : "Printer''s ink", "Support" : "2ply board", "Disp_Medium" : "Color lithograph", "Info_Page_Comm" : "From a portfolio of 27 prints. This image juxtaposes stragglers going to church, seduced by the holy relics of martyrs, with the massive numbers of workers heading into a factory. The powerful factory whistle blasts its call to labor; the fractured and broken lines around the church bell suggest the weakness of both its sound and effectiveness in an industrialized society. ", "Dedication" : "Marion Stratton Gould Fund", "Copyright_Type" : "Public Domain", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Print", "Creation_Place2" : "Russian", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/2001.20.12_A2.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/2001.20.12_A2.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/2001.20.12_A2.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/2001.20.12_A2.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "27446", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 11799, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/11799", "Disp_Access_No" : "2001.20.13", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1932", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1932", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1932", "Disp_Title" : "The Merry Monks' Mendacious Miracles", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "The letter &#1054; from The Anti-Religious Alphabet", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "Mikhail Mikhailovich Cheremnykh", "Sort_Artist" : "Cheremnykh, Mikhail Mikhailovich", "Disp_Dimen" : "14 7/8 x 10 5/8 in. (37.8 x 27 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "14 7/8 in.", "Disp_Width" : "10 5/8 in.", "Dimen_Extent" : "sheet/ image", "Medium" : "Printer''s ink", "Support" : "2ply board", "Disp_Medium" : "Color lithograph", "Info_Page_Comm" : "From a portfolio of 27 prints. Icons-- images of the Virgin Mary, Christ, or holy saints-- are important devotional objects in Russian Orthodox Christianity. Because believers communicate through them with the divine world, they are sometimes seen as magical. Here, the magic is revealed as the outright trickery of the clergy. Although this image of the Virgin Mary seems to weep genuine tears, in reality a monk is pouring a bucket of water into a vessel attached to the back of the icon. ", "Dedication" : "Marion Stratton Gould Fund", "Copyright_Type" : "Public Domain", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Print", "Creation_Place2" : "Russian", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/2001.20.13_A2.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/2001.20.13_A2.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/2001.20.13_A2.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/2001.20.13_A2.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "27447", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 11800, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/11800", "Disp_Access_No" : "2001.20.14", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1932", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1932", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1932", "Disp_Title" : "A Proletarian Prayer for Pious Preachers", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "The letter &#1055; from The Anti-Religious Alphabet", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "Mikhail Mikhailovich Cheremnykh", "Sort_Artist" : "Cheremnykh, Mikhail Mikhailovich", "Disp_Dimen" : "14 7/8 x 10 5/8 in. (37.8 x 27 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "14 7/8 in.", "Disp_Width" : "10 5/8 in.", "Dimen_Extent" : "sheet/ image", "Medium" : "Printer''s ink", "Support" : "2ply board", "Disp_Medium" : "Color lithograph", "Info_Page_Comm" : "From a portfolio of 27 prints. As in many other images from the alphabet, the Roman Catholic pope is shown as a dangerous figure; a large knife attached to his rosary substitutes for the traditional Christian cross. Here, however, the pope is unsuccessful in his mission: the large boot of the young anti-religious protagonist from <em>The Anti-Religious Alphabet</em> forcefully removes him from the premises.", "Dedication" : "Marion Stratton Gould Fund", "Copyright_Type" : "Public Domain", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Print", "Creation_Place2" : "Russian", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/2001.20.14_A2.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/2001.20.14_A2.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/2001.20.14_A2.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/2001.20.14_A2.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "27448", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 11801, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/11801", "Disp_Access_No" : "2001.20.15", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1932", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1932", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1932", "Disp_Title" : "Pull the Plug on the Parasites' Paradise", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "The letter &#1056; from The Anti-Religious Alphabet", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "Mikhail Mikhailovich Cheremnykh", "Sort_Artist" : "Cheremnykh, Mikhail Mikhailovich", "Disp_Dimen" : "14 7/8 x 10 5/8 in. (37.8 x 27 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "14 7/8 in.", "Disp_Width" : "10 5/8 in.", "Dimen_Extent" : "sheet/ image", "Medium" : "Printer''s ink", "Support" : "2ply board", "Disp_Medium" : "Color lithograph", "Info_Page_Comm" : "From a portfolio of 27 prints. In this image, the religious clergy of Western Catholicism are shown as propagandists at the service of capitalism. The shark-toothed man at the bottom of the image, recognized as a capitalist by his hat and monocle, holds a stick topped by a cloud labeled "Paradise." At the top of the cloud is Christ, who is stretching his hands out toward the people running to meet him. The offer of religious paradise to the masses, though, is shown here as a devious trap: the people are being forcibly driven to the edge of a cliff by the pope (recognized by his crown) and western monks and priests (recognized by their costume and the cross of Western Christianity). The gap between the edge of the cliff and paradise is too wide, and they fall directly into the mouth of the capitalist. [Gallery label text, 2004]", "Dedication" : "Marion Stratton Gould Fund", "Copyright_Type" : "Public Domain", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Print", "Creation_Place2" : "Russian", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/2001.20.15_A2.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/2001.20.15_A2.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/2001.20.15_A2.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/2001.20.15_A2.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "27449", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 11802, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/11802", "Disp_Access_No" : "2001.20.16", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1932", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1932", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1932", "Disp_Title" : "Sacred Stories are So Silly! ", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "The letter &#1057; from The Anti-Religious Alphabet", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "Mikhail Mikhailovich Cheremnykh", "Sort_Artist" : "Cheremnykh, Mikhail Mikhailovich", "Disp_Dimen" : "14 7/8 x 10 5/8 in. (37.8 x 27 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "14 7/8 in.", "Disp_Width" : "10 5/8 in.", "Dimen_Extent" : "sheet/ image", "Medium" : "Printer''s ink", "Support" : "2ply board", "Disp_Medium" : "Color lithograph", "Info_Page_Comm" : "From a portfolio of 27 prints. Although our protagonist is clearly reading, which is the point of learning the alphabet, he is also laughing at the religious stories he finds in the Bible. The premise of the Soviet educational movement can be summarized with another well-used slogan of the time: "Literacy: The Path to Communism." Students were expected to read selectively in a way that would advance the industrialization of society and the principles of atheist materialism.", "Dedication" : "Marion Stratton Gould Fund", "Copyright_Type" : "Public Domain", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Print", "Creation_Place2" : "Russian", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/2001.20.16_A2.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/2001.20.16_A2.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/2001.20.16_A2.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/2001.20.16_A2.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "27450", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 11803, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/11803", "Disp_Access_No" : "2001.20.17", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1932", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1932", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1932", "Disp_Title" : "That's the Way to Till, Comrade Tractor!", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "The letter &#x1058; from The Anti-Religious Alphabet", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "Mikhail Mikhailovich Cheremnykh", "Sort_Artist" : "Cheremnykh, Mikhail Mikhailovich", "Disp_Dimen" : "14 7/8 x 10 5/8 in. (37.8 x 27 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "14 7/8 in.", "Disp_Width" : "10 5/8 in.", "Dimen_Extent" : "sheet/ image", "Medium" : "Printer''s ink", "Support" : "2ply board", "Disp_Medium" : "Color lithograph", "Info_Page_Comm" : "From a portfolio of 27 prints. In the Russian countryside, the <em>kulak</em>, or wealthy landowner, the village priest, and elderly peasant women who persisted in their religious beliefs were considered the three holdouts to both the Soviet anti-religious campaign and the move toward collective farming and industrialization. Here, despite the three characters' attempts at restraining the tiller, the tractor going around the circumference of the circle clears the <em>kulak</em>'s land of individual plots, replacing them with a single one filled with golden wheat. The word "collectivization" is written on the tiller. ", "Dedication" : "Marion Stratton Gould Fund", "Copyright_Type" : "Public Domain", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Print", "Creation_Place2" : "Russian", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/2001.20.17_A2.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/2001.20.17_A2.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/2001.20.17_A2.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/2001.20.17_A2.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "27451", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 11804, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/11804", "Disp_Access_No" : "2001.20.18", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1932", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1932", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1932", "Disp_Title" : "Sack the Saints-Sow the Seeds ", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "The letter &#1059; from The Anti-Religious Alphabet", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "Mikhail Mikhailovich Cheremnykh", "Sort_Artist" : "Cheremnykh, Mikhail Mikhailovich", "Disp_Dimen" : "14 7/8 x 10 5/8 in. (37.8 x 27 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "14 7/8 in.", "Disp_Width" : "10 5/8 in.", "Dimen_Extent" : "sheet/ image", "Medium" : "Printer''s ink", "Support" : "2ply board", "Disp_Medium" : "Color lithograph", "Info_Page_Comm" : "From a portfolio of 27 prints. Russian peasants frequently planted their crops based on a belief in superstitions and the power of divine forces rather than scientific methods. This image juxtaposes the old way of farming with the new and technologically advanced. On the left, two saints identified by their halos as Nicholas and Elijah are watering wilted crops and swinging a censer used in church rituals. On the right, a full field of healthy wheat serves as a backdrop to a book with the words "Agrotechnology" and "Fertilizers." The drawing is of a Machine Tractor Station (MTC). ", "Dedication" : "Marion Stratton Gould Fund", "Copyright_Type" : "Public Domain", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Print", "Creation_Place2" : "Russian", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/2001.20.18_A2.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/2001.20.18_A2.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/2001.20.18_A2.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/2001.20.18_A2.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "27452", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 11806, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/11806", "Disp_Access_No" : "2001.20.19", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1932", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1932", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1932", "Disp_Title" : "Ford's Factories are Fascist Forts ", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "The letter &#1060; from The Anti-Religious Alphabet", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "Mikhail Mikhailovich Cheremnykh", "Sort_Artist" : "Cheremnykh, Mikhail Mikhailovich", "Disp_Dimen" : "14 7/8 x 10 5/8 in. (37.8 x 27 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "14 7/8 in.", "Disp_Width" : "10 5/8 in.", "Dimen_Extent" : "sheet/ image", "Medium" : "Printer''s ink", "Support" : "2ply board", "Disp_Medium" : "Color lithograph", "Info_Page_Comm" : "From a portfolio of 27 prints. In this image, which addresses the threat of Nazi Germany to the Soviet Union, the hat of the American icon Uncle Sam is crowned with a Nazi swastika. The soldiers on the brim of the hat fire machine guns into the populace on the ground. The figure of Uncle Sam holds a Bible open to a page that assures "All men are brothers." The caption for this image refers to Henry Ford, the founder of the American automotive industry and one of the wealthiest businessmen in the world. In 1931, Ford, a staunch supporter of Hitler, established a factory in Cologne, Germany, which, along with the factories of General Motors, provided many of the trucks that eventually motorized the Nazi attempt to conquer Europe. ", "Dedication" : "Marion Stratton Gould Fund", "Copyright_Type" : "Public Domain", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Print", "Creation_Place2" : "Russian", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/2001.20.19_A2.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/2001.20.19_A2.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/2001.20.19_A2.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/2001.20.19_A2.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "27453", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 11807, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/11807", "Disp_Access_No" : "2001.20.20", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1932", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1932", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1932", "Disp_Title" : "Waving the Word While Wielding the Whip", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "The letter &#1061; from The Anti-Religious Alphabet", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "Mikhail Mikhailovich Cheremnykh", "Sort_Artist" : "Cheremnykh, Mikhail Mikhailovich", "Disp_Dimen" : "14 7/8 x 10 5/8 in. (37.8 x 27 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "14 7/8 in.", "Disp_Width" : "10 5/8 in.", "Dimen_Extent" : "sheet/ image", "Medium" : "Printer''s ink", "Support" : "2ply board", "Disp_Medium" : "Color lithograph", "Info_Page_Comm" : "From a portfolio of 27 prints. An important tenet of the anti-religious movement was the intertwined relationship between Christian beliefs and capitalism, a relationship that was dangerous to the freedom of the common man. In this image, a slave, perhaps from one of the African or Caribbean nations colonized by Europeans, is chained and whipped by the wealthy capitalist. A Franciscan friar, symbolizing the missionary preachers of the Catholic Church, displays a Bible opened to the words "love one another." Men bent over from the weight of their burdens are seen in the background. ", "Dedication" : "Marion Stratton Gould Fund", "Copyright_Type" : "Public Domain", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Print", "Creation_Place2" : "Russian", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/2001.20.20_A2.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/2001.20.20_A2.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/2001.20.20_A2.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/2001.20.20_A2.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "27454", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 11808, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/11808", "Disp_Access_No" : "2001.20.21", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1932", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1932", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1932", "Disp_Title" : "Churches are Chains that Choke and Chafe", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "The letter &#1062; from The Anti-Religious Alphabet", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "Mikhail Mikhailovich Cheremnykh", "Sort_Artist" : "Cheremnykh, Mikhail Mikhailovich", "Disp_Dimen" : "14 7/8 x 10 5/8 in. (37.8 x 27 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "14 7/8 in.", "Disp_Width" : "10 5/8 in.", "Dimen_Extent" : "sheet/ image", "Medium" : "Printer''s ink", "Support" : "2ply board", "Disp_Medium" : "Color lithograph", "Info_Page_Comm" : "From a portfolio of 27 prints. The Soviet anti-religious campaigners believed that the common man was enslaved by the church, and that his freedom could only be obtained by embracing the doctrine of atheist communism. The man in this image, blindfolded and chained to the dome of a church, wears the traditional tunic and hairstyle of a Russian peasant. The cross that he wears on the chain around his neck is the same one that extends from the top of the church dome. ", "Dedication" : "Marion Stratton Gould Fund", "Copyright_Type" : "Public Domain", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Print", "Creation_Place2" : "Russian", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/2001.20.21_A2.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/2001.20.21_A2.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/2001.20.21_A2.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/2001.20.21_A2.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "27455", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 11809, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/11809", "Disp_Access_No" : "2001.20.22", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1932", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1932", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1932", "Disp_Title" : "Read it Loud and Clear! Rosaries are Rubbish!", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "The letter &#1063; from The Anti-Religious Alphabet", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "Mikhail Mikhailovich Cheremnykh", "Sort_Artist" : "Cheremnykh, Mikhail Mikhailovich", "Disp_Dimen" : "14 7/8 x 10 5/8 in. (37.8 x 27 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "14 7/8 in.", "Disp_Width" : "10 5/8 in.", "Dimen_Extent" : "sheet/ image", "Medium" : "Printer''s ink", "Support" : "2ply board", "Disp_Medium" : "Color lithograph", "Info_Page_Comm" : "From a portfolio of 27 prints. Like the rosaries of Roman Catholicism, the <em>chotki</em>, or prayer ropes, of Russian Orthodox Christianity are strings of beads used by the religious faithful to recite a series of predetermined prayers. Because of the Western rather than Orthodox cross on the end of the beads, this image could refer to the Roman pope's mandate for Catholics to say the Rosary "for the conversion of Russia," which was seen as a symbol of western aggression by the Soviet anti-religious campaign. ", "Dedication" : "Marion Stratton Gould Fund", "Copyright_Type" : "Public Domain", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Print", "Creation_Place2" : "Russian", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/2001.20.22_A2.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/2001.20.22_A2.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/2001.20.22_A2.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/2001.20.22_A2.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "27456", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 11810, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/11810", "Disp_Access_No" : "2001.20.23", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1932", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1932", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1932", "Disp_Title" : "Pierce the Pack of Priestly Pretenders ", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "The letter &#1064; from The Anti-Religious Alphabet", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "Mikhail Mikhailovich Cheremnykh", "Sort_Artist" : "Cheremnykh, Mikhail Mikhailovich", "Disp_Dimen" : "14 7/8 x 10 5/8 in. (37.8 x 27 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "14 7/8 in.", "Disp_Width" : "10 5/8 in.", "Dimen_Extent" : "sheet/ image", "Medium" : "Printer''s ink", "Support" : "2ply board", "Disp_Medium" : "Color lithograph", "Info_Page_Comm" : "From a portfolio of 27 prints. Armed with a shield in the form of the journal <em>The Godless</em>, the official publication of the activist "League of the Militant Godless," our young protagonist aggressively attacks the figureheads of the key religions seen as threats to the Soviet government. Seen from left to right are a mullah, the Pope, a Russian Orthodox priest, a shaman (shamanism was still practiced among Siberian tribes), and a rabbi. ", "Dedication" : "Marion Stratton Gould Fund", "Copyright_Type" : "Public Domain", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Print", "Creation_Place2" : "Russian", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/2001.20.23_A2.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/2001.20.23_A2.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/2001.20.23_A2.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/2001.20.23_A2.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "27457", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 11811, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/11811", "Disp_Access_No" : "2001.20.24", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1932", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1932", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1932", "Disp_Title" : "Tongs! Trim Their Twisted Tentacles! ", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "The letter &#1065; from The Anti-Religious Alphabet", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "Mikhail Mikhailovich Cheremnykh", "Sort_Artist" : "Cheremnykh, Mikhail Mikhailovich", "Disp_Dimen" : "14 7/8 x 10 5/8 in. (37.8 x 27 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "14 7/8 in.", "Disp_Width" : "10 5/8 in.", "Dimen_Extent" : "sheet/ image", "Medium" : "Printer''s ink", "Support" : "2ply board", "Disp_Medium" : "Color lithograph", "Info_Page_Comm" : "From a portfolio of 27 prints. By the time the <em>Anti-Religious Alphabet</em> was produced in 1932, Adolph Hitler's rise to power was almost complete. Hitler was elected Chancellor of Germany in January 1933; his regime immediately implemented the mass arrests of communists and socialists, imprisoning them in the Nazi concentration camp at Dachau. In this image, an enormous yellow one-eyed octopus, its top hat marked with a Nazi swastika, stretches four bristled tentacles across a map of Europe. At the end of each tentacle is a figure that symbolizes both real and perceived threats to the Soviet Union. From left to right are a Japanese soldier, a member of the out-of-favor Soviet Socialist Democratic Party, another soldier (nationality unknown), and a member of the Russian Orthodox clergy. By snipping the tentacles at the source of the threat, the giant red pincers halt both the internal and external threats to the Soviet government. ", "Dedication" : "Marion Stratton Gould Fund", "Copyright_Type" : "Public Domain", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Print", "Creation_Place2" : "Russian", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/2001.20.24_A2.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/2001.20.24_A2.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/2001.20.24_A2.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/2001.20.24_A2.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "27458", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 11812, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/11812", "Disp_Access_No" : "2001.20.25", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1932", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1932", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1932", "Disp_Title" : "Extract the Exploiters with Electric Excavators", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "The letter &#1069; from The Anti-Religious Alphabet", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "Mikhail Mikhailovich Cheremnykh", "Sort_Artist" : "Cheremnykh, Mikhail Mikhailovich", "Disp_Dimen" : "14 7/8 x 10 5/8 in. (37.8 x 27 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "14 7/8 in.", "Disp_Width" : "10 5/8 in.", "Dimen_Extent" : "sheet/ image", "Medium" : "Printer''s ink", "Support" : "2ply board", "Disp_Medium" : "Color lithograph", "Info_Page_Comm" : "From a portfolio of 27 prints. The electrification of the countryside, intended to defeat the ignorance of the populace by bringing agricultural communities into the Machine Age, was a primary goal of the Soviet government. Here, the electric excavator forcefully removes two of the key opponents to the Soviet effort: the <em>kulak</em>, or wealthy landowner, and the low-level village priest. ", "Dedication" : "Marion Stratton Gould Fund", "Copyright_Type" : "Public Domain", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Print", "Creation_Place2" : "Russian", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/2001.20.25_A2.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/2001.20.25_A2.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/2001.20.25_A2.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/2001.20.25_A2.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "27459", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 11813, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/11813", "Disp_Access_No" : "2001.20.26", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1932", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1932", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1932", "Disp_Title" : "How Humble, How Holy He is! ", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "The letter &#1070; from The Anti-Religious Alphabet", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "Mikhail Mikhailovich Cheremnykh", "Sort_Artist" : "Cheremnykh, Mikhail Mikhailovich", "Disp_Dimen" : "14 7/8 x 10 5/8 in. (37.8 x 27 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "14 7/8 in.", "Disp_Width" : "10 5/8 in.", "Dimen_Extent" : "sheet/ image", "Medium" : "Printer''s ink", "Support" : "2ply board", "Disp_Medium" : "Color lithograph", "Info_Page_Comm" : "From a portfolio of 27 prints. One of the key changes that the Soviet government made to agriculture was to replace individual land ownership with the collective farm, or <em>kolkhoz</em>. Here, the fist at the right, crowned with the cap of the <em>kulak</em>, or rich landowner, manipulates a village "holy fool" with strings like those of a marionette. Holy fools traveled itinerantly throughout the countryside and were often seen as prophets of wisdom. Here, the holy fool is crying out to an old peasant woman "Don't join the <em>kolkhoz</em>," which was the obvious desire of the <em>kulak</em>. The artist Cheremnykh used word play to strengthen the imagery: in Russian, <em>kulak</em> is also the word for fist. ", "Dedication" : "Marion Stratton Gould Fund", "Copyright_Type" : "Public Domain", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Print", "Creation_Place2" : "Russian", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/2001.20.26_A2.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/2001.20.26_A2.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/2001.20.26_A2.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/2001.20.26_A2.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "27460", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 11814, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/11814", "Disp_Access_No" : "2001.20.27", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1932", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1932", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1932", "Disp_Title" : "Vile and Virulent is the Viper's Venom", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "The letter &#1071; from The Anti-Religious Alphabet", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "Mikhail Mikhailovich Cheremnykh", "Sort_Artist" : "Cheremnykh, Mikhail Mikhailovich", "Disp_Dimen" : "14 7/8 x 10 5/8 in. (37.8 x 27 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "14 7/8 in.", "Disp_Width" : "10 5/8 in.", "Dimen_Extent" : "sheet/ image", "Medium" : "Printer''s ink", "Support" : "2ply board", "Disp_Medium" : "Color lithograph", "Info_Page_Comm" : "From a portfolio of 27 prints. Pope Pius XI, the leader of the Catholic Church at the time Cheremnykh designed <em>The Anti-Religious Alphabet</em>, was openly critical of the atheistic doctrine of the Soviet Union. He condemned communism as the most persistent enemy of Christianity, calling it a "satanic scourge" from which the common man must be saved. The pope was seen as a grave threat to Soviet society; this image presents Pius XI's words as a writhing, dangerous snake waiting to strike. ", "Dedication" : "Marion Stratton Gould Fund", "Copyright_Type" : "Public Domain", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Print", "Creation_Place2" : "Russian", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/2001.20.27_A2.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/2001.20.27_A2.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/2001.20.27_A2.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/2001.20.27_A2.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "27461", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 4772, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/4772", "Disp_Access_No" : "1954.21", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1755-1758", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1755", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1758", "Disp_Title" : "The Polling", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "William Hogarth", "Sort_Artist" : "Hogarth, William", "Disp_Dimen" : "17 1/4 x 22 1/16 in. (43.8 x 56 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "17 1/4 in.", "Disp_Width" : "22 1/16 in.", "Dimen_Extent" : "", "Medium" : "Printer''s ink", "Support" : "paper", "Disp_Medium" : "Engraving", "Info_Page_Comm" : "The third plate from a sequence of four entitled "Four Prints of An Election," based on four paintings also by Hogarth. The prints were originally published between February, 1755 and February, 1758.", "Dedication" : "Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Herman Cohn", "Copyright_Type" : "Public Domain", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Print", "Creation_Place2" : "British", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/54.21_A1.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/54.21_A1.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/54.21_A1.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/54.21_A1.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "29392", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "Temporary image, do not use for web or print", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 4774, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/4774", "Disp_Access_No" : "1954.22", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1755-1758", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1755", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1758", "Disp_Title" : "Canvassing for Votes", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "William Hogarth", "Sort_Artist" : "Hogarth, William", "Disp_Dimen" : "17 x 21 7/8 in. 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The prints were originally published between February, 1755 and February, 1758.", "Dedication" : "Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Herman Cohn", "Copyright_Type" : "Public Domain", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Print", "Creation_Place2" : "British", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/54.22_A1.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/54.22_A1.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/54.22_A1.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/54.22_A1.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "29396", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "Temporary image, do not use for web or print", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 4775, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/4775", "Disp_Access_No" : "1954.23", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1755-1758", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1755", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1758", "Disp_Title" : "An Election Entertainment", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "William Hogarth", "Sort_Artist" : "Hogarth, William", "Disp_Dimen" : "17 1/8 x 22 1/4 in. 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The prints were originally published between February, 1755 and February, 1758.", "Dedication" : "Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Herman Cohn", "Copyright_Type" : "Public Domain", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Print", "Creation_Place2" : "British", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/54.23_A1.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/54.23_A1.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/54.23_A1.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/54.23_A1.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "29401", "Image_Type" : "digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "Temporary image, do not use for web or print", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 4776, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/4776", "Disp_Access_No" : "1954.25", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1755-1758", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1755", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1758", "Disp_Title" : "Chairing the Members", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "William Hogarth", "Sort_Artist" : "Hogarth, William", "Disp_Dimen" : "17 3/16 x 22 in. 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